Castro Caldas is currently Director of the Institute of Health Sciences of Portuguese Catholic University and was Full Professor of Neurology, until 2004, at the University of Lisbon and Head of the Department of Clinical Neurosciences of the Hospital de Santa Maria, in Lisbon, Portugal.

He earned his M.D. and his Ph.D. from the University of Lisbon School of Medicine, where he started his career in 1974. He has been responsible for the Language Research Laboratory until 1998 and organized the Center for Neurosciences of Lisbon in 1990. He was President of the International Neuropsychological Society (2000-2001).

His publications include two textbooks of Neuropsychology in portuguese, A Herança de Franz Joseph Gall and Viagem ao Cérebro e a algumas das suas Competências and papers in international journals, as: Brain, Neurology, NeuroImage, Journal of Cognitive Neurosciences, JINS, and multiple chapters in national and international books. He is member of the editorial board of several national and international journals. His current research interests include several topics in Cognitive Neurosciences and in particular the modulatory effect of environmental stimulation in the human brain.